Begreberne bruges inden for koreansk kampkunst til at referere til de indstuderede figurer/serier, som man udfører under træningen og som er en del af pensum til en graduering (bælteprøve).
De koreannske begreber ”Hyeong” og "Poomsae” (til tider anvendes også ”Tul”), betyder ”form” eller ”figur”
- men på dansk plejer vi, inden for Taekwondo, at sige "serie".
I Danmark er det ikke almindeligt at anvende det koreanske ord "Hyeong". Her taler man om "serier" eller "Taegeuk".
En “Hyeong” er altså en systematisk forudarrangeret sekvens af kampsportsteknikker som udføres enten med eller uden våben (i Taekwondo uden). Der findes mange forskellige grupper af "Hyeong". Inden for bæltegraderne under sort bælte findes der 8 Teageuk og 3 Kichu (hos Københavns Taekwondo Klub) og 8 Palgwe.
Men Taegeuk er blot nogle af de Hyeong-typer der findes.
Men globalt set findes mange andre Taekwondo-Hyeongs inden for de forskellige taekwondoorganisationer.
Serierne er skabt med det formål at arrangere alle grundteknikkerne i én kontinuerlig bevægelse, under forestillingen om at man bliver angrebet fra alle sider. Derfor starter alle handlinger også altid med en parade/blokering efterfulgt af et angreb.
Kook Jae mu duk
og flere (se neden for)
Det er vigtigt at træne Hyoeng med tålmodighed og koncentration, da det er hensigten at de skal hjælpe dig til at øge din præcision, balance, koordination, hurtighed og udholdenhed. Det gælder ikke om at gøre det så hurtigt som muligt - og blive først færdig, men at udføre alle teknikkerne (inkl. stande) så perfekt som muligt.
Men serierne fungere også som en styrkelse af den mentale og psykiske tilstand, da man under udførelsen, så at sige "tømmer hjernen" for tanker og følelser og opnår den meditative tilstand som inden for Zen kaldes "Mushin" hvilket betyder "tankefrihed" (ikke at forveksle med tankeløshed eller tanketomhed).
I de fleste dojanger bliver hyeong primært brugt som en form for intervaltræning, som en del af grundtekniktræningen.
Inden for de seneste år er der opstået konkurrencer og stævner på lige fod som kampstævner, kaldet "Poomsae-mesterskaber", hvor udførelsen af Hyeong vurderes og analyseres hvorefter der udpeges en mester.
I vesten findes der to typer af konkurrencer; Kreativ og standard. Den kreative del bliver "opfundet" af udøveren og er ofte mere akrobatisk end de traditionelle taekwondoteknikker der normalt trænes.
Udførelsen af Hyeong bliver vurderet af et panel af dommere, som basere deres point på grundlag af mange faktorer: Energi, Præsision, Hurtighed, Balance og Kontrol.
Danmark har en af verdens bedste udøvere af Poomsae; Dang Dinh Ky Tu, fra Rødovre, som har været verdensmester, europamester og vundet medaljer ved stort set hvert stævne han er stillet op til.
Globalt set findes der mange forskellige taekwondo-organisationer og store forskelligheder i deres måde at prioritere Hyeong. Nogle skoler kan bruge to forskellige Hyeong, mens andre kun holder sig til "de officielle". Det er ofte den tilknyttede stormester der er afgørende for dette.
I Københavns Taekwondo Klub, anvendes de officielle Hyeong fra Kukkiwon + Kichu Hyeong + Pyung Ahn Hyeong, fordi klubben er tilknyttet Stormester Ko Tae Jeong, som tidligere har trænet "Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan", hvor disse har været anvendt.
Kukkiwon bruger ordet "Poomsae" for Hyong/serie. Poomsae-filosofien kommer fra bogen "'I Ching", som har 64 hexagrammer (sekskantede former), en kombination af to sæt af tre bjælker, åbne eller lukkede.
Sættene med de tre bjælker kaldes "trigram" eller "Gwe" (som også kan ses i det koreanske flag).
De ubrudte linjer repræsentere Yang mens de åbne repræsentere Yin. På kinesisk kaldes Yin og Yang for "Taichi" mens de på koreansk hedder "Tae-geuk".
Det er forklaringen på begrebet Poomsae Taegeuk. De 8 trigram/Gwe kaldes samlet for Pal-gwe (8 gwe), som i Palgwe poomsae.
Betydningen, trigrammerne og symbolikken er fælles for både Palgwe og Taegeuk, men de to Hyeong-serier/bevægelsesmønstre er forskellige.
De første 8 Taegeuk Hyeong og Palgwe Hyeong er forskellige fra hinanden mens de efterfølgende 9 Poomsae Hyeong (til de forskellige sortbæltegrader) er fælles.
Pal-Gwe Hyeung blev skabt af The Korean Taekwondo Association i 1967 og blev brugt frem til 1971.
Efter at Kukkiwon blev verdens officielle Taekwondo Hovedkvarter, blev det bekendtgjort at Palgwe pumsae ikke længere er officielle Hyeongs (hvilket dog ikke har afholdt taekwondoudøvere rundt omkring i verden fra at træne disse palgwe), i stedet var det nu Taegeuk Poomsae der var de officielle hyeongs.
Fra 1971 og fremefter har Taegeuk poomsae har været brugt som officielle Hyeong under Kukkiwon og World Taekwondo Federation.
Den 26. februar 1987 har Kukkiwon vedtaget hvilke skrifttegn der var gældende (se øverst på siden) og dermed skal den vestlige skriveform være "Poomsae" (udtale: Pum-sæ).
Ordet "Poomsae" bliver i den vestlige verden ofte skrevet som "poomse"; men det vil føre til en ukorrekt udtale og dermed til forkert skrifttegn. Det er den samme problemetik som gør sig gældende i ordet TAEKWONDO, hvor TAE ofte udtales "Teh" eller "Tay" eller "Tai", hvilket er forkert. Den korrekte udtale er "TÆ" eller DÆ (skrives: Tae).
I det følgende kan du se en oversigt over de forskellige Hyeong og nogle af dem vil have et aktivt link der viser en film:
Also, this trigram has a relationship to South and Father. The first Taegeuk form is the beginning of all pumsaes, the "birth" of the martial artist into Taekwondo. This pumsae should be performed with the greatness of Heaven.
The associated trigram of this pumsae represents the Lake. Also, related to the symbol is South East and the relationship of the youngest daughter. The movements of this Taegeuk/Palgwe are aimed to be performed believing that man has limitations, but that we can overcome these limitations. The Lake and its water symbolize the flowing and calm nature of the martial artist. This form is to reflect those attributes.
This trigram represents Fire. Related to this symbol is also East and the relationship of the Second Daughter. Fire contains a lot of energy. The symbol behind the fire is similar to the symbolism of the water in that both can aid and both can destroy. This form is intended to be performed rhythmically, with some outbursts of energy to reflect fire's rhythmic and energetic dualism.
This trigram represents Thunder. Also, the trigram is strongly connected to northeast and the relationship of the Eldest son. Thunder comes from the sky and is absorbed by the earth, thus, according to the beliefs of the I Ching, thunder is one of the most powerful natural forces. This pumsae is associated with power and the connection between the heavens and earth. This pumsae is intended to be performed with power resembling the Thunder for which it is named.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents Wind. The trigram is also related to southwest and the relationship with an eldest daughter. The I Ching promotes that wind is a gentle force, but can sometimes be furious, destroying everything in its path. As such, it is intended that this pumsae is performed like the wind: gently, but knowing the ability of mass destruction with a single movement. The performer and audience should be aware of the duality of the form.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents Water. Also, there is a relation to West and the relationship with a Second son. The movements of this pumsae are intended to be performed like water; flowing, powerful and cleansing. Sometimes standing still like water in a lake, sometimes thriving as a river, sometimes powerful like a waterfall. The water is to symbolize calm and cleansing, while also possessing the attribute of being violent and destructive.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents a Mountain. Also, it represents the northwest and youngest son. The symbolism behind the mountain is the indomitable and majestic nature that all mountains possess. This pumsae is intended to be performed with the feeling that all movements are this majestic due to their unconquerable nature.
The trigram associated with this pumsae represents the Earth. Also, there is a representation of North and Mother. The associated trigram of this pumsae is Yin. Yin, here, represents the end of the beginning, the evil part of all that is good. This being the last of the pumsae Taegeuk, it represents the end of the circle and the cyclic nature of the Earth.
Koryo or Goryeo, is the name of an old Korean Dynasty. The people from the Goryeo defeated the Mongolian aggressors. It is intended that their spirit is reflected in the movements of the pumsae Koryo. Each movement of this pumsae represents the strength and energy needed to control the Mongols.
Keumgang means "diamond," symbolizing hardness. Keumgang is also the name of the most beautiful mountain in Korea, as well as the Keumgang warrior, named by Buddha. Thus, the themes of hardness, beauty, and pondering permeate this pumsae.
The legendary Dangun founded a nation in Taebaek, near Korea's biggest mountain Baekdoo. Baekdoo is a known symbol for Korea. The definition of the word taebaek is literally "lightness". Every movement in this pumsae is intended to be not only be exact and fast, but with determination and hardness resembling the mountain Baekdoo, the origin of the nation of Korea.
The definition of Pyongwon is "stretch, vast plain." The name carries with it a connotation of being large and majestic.
Sipjin stands for ten symbols of longevity, which are Sun, Moon, Mountain, Water, Stone, Pine tree, Herb of eternal youth, Turtle, Deer, and Crane. This pumsae represents the endless development and growth by the basic idea of the ten symbols of longevity and the decimal system.
This pumsae is derived from the meaning of the earth. All things evolve from and return to the earth, the earth is the beginning and the end of life, as reelected through the Yin and Yang.
Cheonkwon literally means 'sky'. In the pumsae, the sky symbolizes the ruler of the universe. According to belief, it is mysterious, infinite and profound. The motions of Cheonkwon are full of piety, vitality and reverence.
This pumsae is derived from the fluidity of water which easily adapts within nature. The symbol of the water repeats itself many times throughout all pumsae, hyeongs, and in martial arts in general.
The state of spiritual cultivation in Buddhism is called 'Ilyo' which means 'oneness'. In Ilyo, body and mind, spirit and substance, "I" and "you" are unified. The ultimate ideal of the martial art and pumsae can be found in this state. It is a discipline in which every movement is concentrated on leaving all materialistics thoughts, obsessions and external influences behind.
Der findes flere forskellige Tang Soo Do organisationer i verden (Tang Soo Do Moo Duk Kwan), men de følger stort set alle den samme retning hvad angår Hyeong/serier. De fleste Hyeong relaterer sig til japanske okinawa kataer (karate) og navnene er ofte direkte oversat fra japansk
Tang Soo Do hyeong
Nogle skoler underviser i kicho hyeong, blandt andet Københavns Taekwondo Klub:
Kicho Ee Bu
The Kicho hyeong were developed as a basic, simple form for beginners. The symbol used in Tang Soo Do for the Kicho hyeong is a human baby learning to walk. The pattern is also visible in the increasingly complex forms that follow. Hwang Kee used these forms to teach applications of basic moves and techniques. These forms are also influenced by the Wa Ka Ryu style of southern China. These and the Pyung Ahn forms to follow are characterized by speed, aggressiveness, dynamic action, and quick reaction.
Kichog Sam Bu
The Kicho hyeong are extremely similar to the Taikyokukata developed by Gichin Funakoshi.
The embusen used are the same, the stances are the Tang Soo Do equivalent, and the blocks and strikes are virtually identical. There is great reason to believe that Hwang Kee based his Korean Kicho hyeong on the Japanese Taikyoku kata developed by Funakoshi.
Kook Jae mu duk hyeongs
The World Tang Soo Do Association has modified the Kicho Hyeong, adding some kicks to it:
Kook Jae mu duk Hyeong Il Bu
Kook Jae mu duk Hyeong E Bu
Kook Jae mu duk Hyeong Sam Bu
Pyong Ahn hyeong
Pyung Ahn Hyeong er en serie på fem figurer som på mange områder minder om “Pinan Kata” fra karate.
De er udviklet af Itosu, fra Okinawa.
Disse figurer var skabt som træningsfigurer til Kong Sang Koon (Kusanku).
They were developed by Itosu, an Okinawan practitioner of Te and mentor of Funakoshi Gichin.
The first of the Pyong Ahn series, much of this form is a combination of gicho hyeong il bu and ee bu. This form also employs low knife-hand blocks. It is also the first hyeong to incorporate multiple techniques per count.
Pyong Ahn Cho Dan
This hyeong is typically one count/technique longer than the other low-rank forms, due to one of its techniques, a side kick, which is performed in two counts, the first to set up and the second to deliver. It is also one of the few low-level hyeong to have a yell on the last move. The most-often used technique in this hyeong is the middle knife-hand block.
Pyong Ahn Ee Dan
The third of the pyong ahn series, this is also the shortest. While the forms before it involve an I-structure for movement, this form instead goes along an inverted T-structure, cutting out several counts. Its series of outside-inside kicks to sideways elbow strikes and hammerfist strikes is its most recognizable feature. It also ends with a yell.
Pyong Ahn Sam Dan
This form starts out much like Pyong Ahn Ee Dan, except that where Pyong Ahn Ee Dan has closed fists on its first blocks, Pyong Ahn Sa Dan has open hands. It is cognate to the Shotokan kata Pinan Yondan.
Pyong Ahn Sa Dan
Pyong Ahn O Dan
The phrase "pyong ahn" is often translated as "well-balanced" and "peaceful." These forms are usually taught after the gicho hyeong. These forms were reorganized from their original style(called "Jae-Nam") in approximately 1870 to their present style. These forms show the influence of the southern China martial art style.
The Pyung Ahn hyeong are often referred to as the "turtle forms". The turtle is well balanced, calm, and peaceful (pyung) and with its shell as its major means of defence, the turtle likely feels safe, confident, and comfortable (ahn).
The Keema hyeong series are borrowed from the naihanchi series of karate, and in fact some schools use the name Naihanchi for these forms. The level at which they are taught varies, but their difficulty and technicality means that they are most often reserved for red/black belts, though not always directly after each other. Hwang Kee assigned the Horse to represent the form. They are:
Naihanchi Cho Dan
The "Bassai" pattern, meaning "to penetrate a fortress," has cognates in both Chinese, Japanese and Korean martial arts. Moreover, there are many variations upon the two Bassai hyeong present in Tang Soo Do, Bassai(Palche) So and Bassai(Palche) Deh. Some schools only practice Palche De, the "greater" of the two forms. These are usually higher-belt forms. The animal these forms represent is the snake.
Naihanchi Ee Dan
Naihanchi Sam Dan
Bassai/Passai/Palche/Bal Sak hyeong
Kong Sang Koon hyeong
Main article: Kong Sang Koon
Meaning "Ten Hands," Ship Soo (or Sip Soo, depending on the Romanization) is cognate to the karate kata Jitte, though there are differences. Traditionally, this hyeong contains only hand techniques (its name can be taken to mean "all hands"), but some styles of Tang Soo Do do include kicking techniques. Its variations are many, and depend on the school, as with all hyeong. This form supposedly represents the bear.
Sip Soo/Ship Soo hyeong
Jinte is a typically high-rank hyeong, whose hanja can be read as "Battle East". The hyeong requires balance with one legged techniques, and is often seen at tournament hyeong competitions.
ITF Tang Soo Do refers to the form as Jintae, instead of Chinto or Jindo.
These two series of hyeong were created by Grandmaster Hwang Kee, who founded the Moo Duk Kwan organization. Chil Sung literally means "Seven Stars" in Korean. These are presumably represented by the seven forms of the series. "Yuk" meaning "six" and "Ro" means "Path". These forms represent "six paths", though what those paths are is uncertain.
Chil Sung and Yuk Ro hyeong
Schools that follow the ITF standards typically use the Chang Hon 창헌 (also called Chang Hun, Chang 'On or Chon-Ji) forms that were developed by Choi Hong Hi, Nam Tae Hi and Han Cha Kyo and that have their roots in the Oh Do Kwan. With the Oh Do Kwan in charge of the taekwondo training in the Korean military, the "Chang Hon hyeong" set of forms spread widely, and they are seen in many taekwondo organizations.
The pattern names below are shown with Revised Romanization spellings; however, the traditional spellings are shown in parentheses if they vary from the modern standard, since those patterns have long been known with those spellings.
Official ITF Syllabus
Literally, Cheon-Ji (or Chon-Ji) means "heaven and earth" and refers to the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, and thus is the initial pattern learned by the beginner. It consists of low blocks and punches in the first part to represent heaven, and inside-out middle blocks and punches in the second part to denote earth. It does not use any kicks.
천지 / 天地 - 19 movements
Dan-Gun is named after the holy Dangun, the legendary founder of Korea in 2333 BC. Unusually for a teul, all the punches in Dan-Gun are high section (at eye level), symbolizing Dangun scaling a mountain.
단군 / 檀君 - 21 movements
율곡 / 栗谷 - 38 movements
Yul-Gok is a pseudonym of a great philosopher and scholar Yi I (1536-1584) nicknamed the "Confucius of Korea". The 38 movements of this pattern refer to his birthplace on 38-degree latitude and the diagram of the pattern represents scholar.
중근 / 重根 - 32 movements
Jung-Geun (or Joong-Gun) is named after the patriot Ahn Joong-Gun who assassinated Itō Hirobumi, the first Japanese governor-general of Korea, known as the man who played the leading part in the Korea-Japan merger. There are 32 movements in this pattern to represent Mr Ahn's age when he was executed at Lui-Shung Prison in 1910.
Toi-Gye is the pen name of the noted scholar Yi Hwang (16 century AD), an authority on neo-Confucianism. The 37 movements of the pattern refer to his birthplace on 37-degree latitude, the diagram represents "scholar" as in the Yul-Gok hyeong.
퇴계 / 退溪 - 37 movements
화랑 / 花郎 - 29 movements
Hwa-Rang is named after the Hwarang youth group which originated in the Silla Dynasty in the early 7th century. The group eventually became the actual driving force for the unification of the three Kingdoms of Korea. The 29 movements refer to the 29th infantry Division, where Taekwondo developed into maturity.
Chung-Mu (or Choong-Moo) was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Sun-sin of the Yi Dynasty. He was reputed to have invented the first armored battleship (kobukson) in 1592, which is said to be the precursor of the present day submarine. The reason this pattern ends with a left hand attack is to symbolize his regrettable death having no chance to show his unrestrained potentiality checked by the forced reservation of his loyalty to the King.
충무 / 忠武 - 30 movements
Gwang-Gae (or Kwang-Gae) is named after the famous Kwang-Gae-Toh-Wang, the 19th king of the Goguryeo Dynasty, who achieved the greatest territorial expansion including the greater part of Manchuria. The diagram of the form represents the expansion and recovery of lost territory. The 39 movements refer to the first two figures of 391 AD, the year he came to the throne.
광개 / 廣開 - 39 movements
Po Eun is the pseudonym of a loyal subject Jeong Mongju who was a distinguished scholar of neo-Confucianism during the Goryeo Dynasty. His poem "I would not serve a second master though I might be crucified a hundred times" is known to every Korean. The diagram, which is simply a straight line represents his unerring loyalty to the king and his country.
포은 / 圃隱 - 36 movements
Eui-Am is the pseudonym of Son Byong Hi, leader of the Korean independence movement on March 1, 1919. The 45 movements refer to his age when he changed the name of his religion from Dong Hak (oriental learning) to Chondogyo (Heavenly Way Religion) in 1905. The diagram represents his indomitable spirit, displayed while dedicating himself to the prosperity of his nation.
의암 / 義菴 - 45 movements
Chung-Jang (or Choong-Jang) is the pseudonym given to General Kim Duk Ryang who lived during the Yi Dynasty, 14th century. This pattern ends with a left hand attack to symbolize the tragedy of his death at 27 in prison before he was able to reach full maturity.
충장 / 忠壯 - 52 movements
The Juche hyeong has 45 movements. Juche is a philosophical idea that man is the master of everything and decides everything. In other words, the idea that man is that master of the world and his own destiny. It is said that this idea was rooted in Baekdu Mountain, which symbolize the spirit of the Korean people. The diagram represents Baekdu Mountain, which is the highest mountain in Korea. (General Choi replaced Ko-Dang with this pattern.)
주체 / 主體 - 45 movements
삼일 / 三一 - 33 movements
Sam-Il name refers to the historic March 1st Movement, the biggest nation-wide Korean independence movement against the imperial Japan in 1919. The 33 movements in the pattern represent for the 33 patriots who planned the movement.
Yu-Sin (or Yoo-Sin) is named after General Kim Yu-Sin, a commanding general during the Silla Dynasty who played an important role in the merger of Goguryeo and Baekje by Silla. The 68 movements refer to the last two figures of 668 AD the year the three kingdoms were unified. The ready posture signifies a sword drawn to the right rather than the left side, symbolizing Yoo Sin's mistake of following his king's orders to fight with foreign forces (Tang Dynasty of China) against his own people (Goguryeo and Baik-je).
유신 / 庾信 - 68 movements
Choe-Yeong (or Choi-Yong) is named after General Choe Yong, Premier and Commander-in Chief of the armed forces during the 14th century Goryeo Dynasty. Choi Yong was greatly respected for his loyalty, patriotism, and humility. He was executed by subordinate commanders headed by General Yi Seonggye, who later became the first king of the Joseon Dynasty.
최영 / 崔榮 - 45 movements
연개 / 淵蓋 - 49 movements
Eul-Ji (or Ul-Ji) is named after general Eulji Mundeok who successfully defended Goguryeo against a Sui invasion force of over one million soldiers led by Yang Je in 612AD. By employing hit and run guerilla tactics, he was able to destroy the majority of the force. The diagram of the hyeong represents his surname. The 42 movements represent the author's age when he designed the pattern.
을지 / 乙支 - 42 movements
문무 / 文武 - 61 movements
Mun-Mu (or Moon-Moo) honors King Munmu, the 30th king of the Silla Dynasty, who completed the unification of the three kingdoms (Goguryeo, Baik-je, Silla). His body was buried near Dae Wang Am (Great King's Rock). According to his will, the body was placed in the sea "Where my soul shall forever defend my land against the Japanese". The 61 movements in this pattern symbolize the last two figures of 661 AD when Munmu came to the throne. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Sea-Jong)
Seo-San (or So-San) is the pseudonym of the great monk Choi Hyon Ung during the Joseon Dynasty. The 72 movements refer to his age when he organized a corps of monk soldiers with the assistance of his pupil Sa Myung Dang. The monk soldiers helped repulse the Japanese pirates who overran most of the Korean peninsula in 1592. (This pattern normally resides between Choi Yong and Sea-Jong) Seo-San is the longest of all Taekwon-do patterns.
서산 / 西山 - 72 movements
This pattern is named after Se-Jong who was the 4th King of the Yi Dynasty. He was known for his many great achievements in domestic and foreign affairs, diplomacy, scientific advancements, defense matters and culture. His most remarkable achievement was his invention of "Hangeul", the Korean Alphabet. The 24 movements of this pattern represent the 24 letters of the "Hangeul".
세종 / 世宗 - 24 movements
Tong-Il means "unification" which is the ultimate goal of all Koreans. Korea used to be one country, but was divided into North and South Korea in 1945 by the ideological conflict between the USSR and the USA after World War II. Yon Mu Sun, the diagram of this pattern symbolizes the North and South becoming one.
통일 / 統一 - 56 movements
Unofficial ITF Syllabus
Chul-Gi literally means Iron Horse and stresses techniques performed in a horse/riding stance. Chul-Gi is Japanese in origin and practiced by many martial arts styles. Chul-Gi is known as Naihanchi in OkinawanKarate and as Tekki in Shotokan Karate. (This pattern normally resides between Hwa-Rang and Choong-Moo)
Bassai is also Japanese in origin and is practiced in Taekwondo and Tang Soo Do (tangsudo) as well as many Japanese and Okinawan Karate styles. Bassai is also known as Balsek. Bassai is often translated as "to break down the fortress". The Korean pronunciation of the characters that make up Bassai is "Patsai". It is usually associated with the Cobra, because of the quick, snapping motions of the techniques. (This pattern normally resides between Choong-Moo and Kwang-Gae)
Go-Dang (or Ko-Dang) was one of the original 24 patterns created by General Choi. In the early 1980s, however, Kodang was removed from the official syllabus by General Choi and replaced by a new pattern which he named Juche. Go-Dang was a famous South Korean anti-communist, and when Choi began to spread his art throughout the world, and to North Korea in particular, he removed this pattern so as not to offend anyone. Although no longer part of official ITF Taekwondo, Kodang is still included in the syllabi of many Taekwondo organisations. In those organisations where it is still taught, it is generally taught to students at the level of second dan black belt. It consists of a sequence of 39 individual techniques. Although some sources lead to the deduction that Kodang is exactly the same pattern as Juche, they are in fact two completely different patterns.
고당/古堂 - 39 movements